This page contains resources on a number of cognitive or behavioural measures. In addition to the specific measures listed below, there are some sites which aggregate many interesting measures:

Delay discounting / Inter-temporal choice

Delay discounting is related to the broader construct of impulsivity. Measures of discounting attempt to quantify how preferences for the magnitude of a reward (be it money, food, or anything else) change as those rewards become more delayed in time. While discounting measures often focus on how preferences change with delay, this need not always be the case – it is also possible to discount rewards which require effort for example.

Kirby Monetary Choice Questionnaire (MCQ)

This is a popular method to assess the discounting of monetary rewards.

21 item version: Kirby, K. N., & Maraković, N. N. (1996). Delay-discounting probabilistic rewards: Rates decrease as amounts increase. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 3(1), 100–104.

27 item version: Kirby, K. N. (2009). One-year temporal stability of delay-discount rates. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 16(3), 457–462.

The scoring of delay discounting tasks is not as simple as for many questionnaire-based measures. There are a variety of methods:

Excel based scoring:

Kaplan, Brent A.; Lemley, Shea M.; Reed, Derek D.; Jarmolowicz, David P. (2014). “21- and 27-Item Monetary Choice Questionnaire Automated Scorers” [software]. Center for Applied Neuroeconomics, University of Kansas.

Bayesian scoring (no coding, using JASP)

If you want to do Bayesian scoring of delay discounting data, but can’t or don’t want to code, then just follow these simple instructions.

Bayesian scoring (with coding):

Vincent, B. T. (2016). Hierarchical Bayesian estimation and hypothesis testing for delay discounting tasks. Behavior Research Methods. 48(4), 1608-1620.  [project page | pdf | code | cited by]

The code for that paper is written in Matlab. It is no longer maintained, but may still work. More recently, I have been running Bayesian (hierarchical) scoring of delay discounting data using Python. Examples of data analysis in published work can be found herehere, and here.

If you are a researcher interested in running Bayesian analyses/scoring of delay discounting data, then I am happy to collaborate. I have been involved in a few successful projects along these lines which have lead to publication. I could equally help with maximum likelihood based methods.

Food Choice Questionnaire (FCQ)

Hendrickson KL, Rasmussen EB, Lawyer SR. (2015) Measurement and validation of measures for impulsive food choice across obese and healthy-weight individuals. Appetite.90:254-63.


Barratt Impulsivity Scale (BIS)

The BIAS-11 can be found here, along with scoring instructions.

UPPS-P Impulsive Behavior Scale

From their website: “The UPPS-P model of impulsivity proposes that impulsivity is a multi-faceted and multi-dimensional construct, comprising five impulsive personality traits.” The Urgency, Premeditation (lack of), Perseverance (lack of), Sensation Seeking, Positive Urgency, Impulsive Behavior Scale can be found here, along with the scoring instructions.

There regular version (UPPS-P) has 59 items, and the short version (S-UPPS-P) has 20 items.

This scale has 3 x 2nd order factors: Emotion based rash action, sensation seeking, deficits in conscientiousness, which break down into further 5 x 1st order factors: negative urgency, positive urgency, sensation seeking, (lack of) premeditation, (lack of) perseverance.

Risky, Impulsive, and Self-Destructive Behavior Questionnaire (RISQ)

The RISQ has 38 items, decomposing into 8 sub scales: drug use, aggression, self-harm, gambling, risky sexual behavior, impulsive eating, heavy alcohol use, and reckless behavior. The RISQ and relevant information can be found here.

Sadeh, N., & Baskin-Sommers, A. (2016). Risky, Impulsive, and Self-Destructive Behavior Questionnaire (RISQ): A Validation Study, 1–15.

Deferment of gratification scale

Scale:, questionnaire + scoring instructions here.

Consideration of Future Consequences scale (CFC)

Information here, including the measure, scoring instructions and references. From that link, “Given their intertemporal nature, one factor that predicts health behaviors is an individual’s CFC (i.e., the extent to which people consider the potential distant outcomes of their current behaviors and are influenced by those potential outcomes; Strathman, Gleicher, Boninger, & Edwards, 1994). The Consideration of Future Consequences Scale (CFC) is a 12- item scale using 5- point ratings. (1 = extremely uncharacteristic to 5 = extremely characteristic).

Dickman Functional and Dysfunctional Impulsivity survey

23 true/false items, available from Science of Behavior Change, click “Access Measure”.

Dickman, S. J., 1990. (1990). Functional and dysfunctional impulsivity: personality and cognitive correlates. Personality Processes and Individual Differences, 58, 95–102.

From the abstract, “Dysfunctional impulsivity is the tendency to act with less forethought than most people of equal ability when this tendency is a source of difficulty; most previous work on impulsivity appears to have focused on this trait. Functional impulsivity, in con- trast, is the tendency to act with relatively little forethought when such a style is optimal.”

Eating behaviour questionnaires

There are a wide variety of eating behaviour questionnaires available from the Institute of Epidemiology and Healthcare at UCL. Examples include:

  • Adult Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (AEBQ)
  • Self-Regulation of Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (SREBQ)
  • Food Choice Questionnaire (FCQ). Do not mix up this FCQ with the delay discounting-based FCQ.
  • Food preference questionnaire (FPQ) for adolescents and adults

Eating Disorder examination questionnaire (EDE-Q 6.0)

Taken from their website: “The Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire (EDE-Q) is a 28-item self-reported questionnaire adapted from the semi-structured interview Eating Disorder Examination (EDE) and designed to assess the range and severity of features associated with a diagnosis of eating disorder using 4 subscales (Restraint, Eating Concern, Shape Concern and Weight Concern) and a global score.

The EDE-Q 6.0 is available here. The full information page covers alternative versions, information about the psychometric properties, and the scoring procedures.

Eating Pathology Symptoms Inventory (EPSI)

There are 45 items, breaking down into 8 sub scales. Download measure and scoring information here.

Information about the EPSI from here… “The Eating Pathology Symptoms Inventory (EPSI) is a 45-item self-report measure that is designed to assess the psychopathology of eating disorders. The EPSI contains eight scales that assess: body dissatisfaction (dissatisfaction with body weight and/or shape), binge eating (ingestion of large amounts of food and accompanying cognitive symptoms), cognitive restraint (cognitive efforts to limit or avoid eating, whether or not such attempts are successful), purging (self-induced vomiting, laxative use, diuretic use, and diet pill use), excessive exercise (physical exercise that is intense and/or compulsive), restricting (concrete efforts to avoid or reduce food consumption), muscle building (desire for increased muscularity and muscle building supplement use), and negative attitudes toward obesity (negative attitudes toward individuals who are overweight or obese).

Forbush, K. T., Wildes, J. E., Pollack, L. O., Dunbar, D., Luo, J., Patterson, K., et al. (2013). Development and validation of the eating pathology symptoms inventory (EPSI). Psychological Assessment, 25(3), 859–878.

Yale Food addiction scale (YFAS)

From their website: “The Yale Food Addiction Scale is a measure that has been developed to identify those who are most likely to be exhibiting markers of substance dependence with the consumption of high fat/high sugar foods. This 25-item self-report measure includes mixed response categories (dichotomous and Likert-type format). A food addiction symptom (e.g., tolerance, withdrawal, loss of control) count can be obtained which is similar to the criteria for substance dependence of the DSM-IV-TR (American Psychiatric Association, 2000). Additionally, two items assess clinically significant impairment or distress from eating. Food addiction can be “diagnosed” when three symptoms and clinically significant impairment or distress are present.”

Information about the YFAS is here, including the questionnaire and the scoring instructions.

Night Eating Diagnostic Questionnaire (NEDQ)

See Appendix A: Nolan, L. J., & Geliebter, A. (2017). Validation of the Night Eating Diagnostic Questionnaire (NEDQ) and its relationship with depression, sleep quality, “food addiction”, and body mass index. Appetite, 111, 86–95.

Nolan, L. J., & Geliebter, A. (2019). Factor structure of the Night Eating Diagnostic Questionnaire (NEDQ) and an evaluation of the diagnostic criteria of the night eating syndrome, 1–10.

Perceived Self-Regulatory Success in Dieting Scale (PSRS)

The 3-item scale is in Appenidx A of: Meule, A., Papies, E. K., & Kübler, A. (2012). Differentiating between successful and unsuccessful dieters. Validity and reliability of the Perceived Self-Regulatory Success in Dieting Scale. Appetite, 58(3), 822–826.

The Diet Self Efficacy Scale (DIET-SE)

Information here, includes the scale and scoring instructions. From that page, “The Diet Self -Efficacy Scale DIET-SE consists of three factors. The first factor is called high caloric food temptations (HCF). It consists of four items describing situations in which the exposure to tempting high caloric food (e.g., cake or ice cream) might make it difficult to resist eating it. The second is called social and internal factors (SIF). It consists of four items describing situations in which social or internal factors, such as being with friends or feeling tired, might make it difficult to resist eating. The third factor is called negative emotional events (NEE). It consists of three items that describe situations in which negative emotional events might make it difficult to resist eating, for example, having had an upsetting argument with a romantic partner.

Physical activity

As well as the measures listed below, check out the Eating Pathology Symptoms Inventory (EPSI) which has some relevant subscales: excessive exercise and muscle building.

Yale Physical Activity Survey

This is available from multiple places, including here which contains a lot of useful information.

Baecke Physical Activity Questionnaire (BPAQ)

The BPAQ evaluates the activity of individuals over the previous 12 months. It has sub scales of work, sport, and leisure time but can also be combined into a total score. Available here along with the scoring instructions.

International Psychical Activity Questionnaire – Long Form (IPAQ)

A 27-item self-report measure of physical activity, and is available here, along with a lot of useful supporting information.


Food Cravings Questionnaire (State and Trait versions)

Original state and trait versions: Cepeda-Benito, A., Gleaves, D. H., Williams, T. L., & Erath, S. A. (2000). The development and validation of the state and trait food-cravings questionnaires. Behavior Therapy, 31(1), 151–173.

A shorter version of the trait measure has also been developed: Meule, A., Hermann, T., & Kübler, A. (2014). A short version of the food cravings questionnaire-trait: The FCQ-T-reduced. Frontiers in Psychology, 5, 190.

Personality Scales

Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory of Personality Questionnaire (RST-PQ)

Corr, P. J., & Cooper, A. J. (2016). The Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory of Personality Questionnaire (RST-PQ): Development and validation., 28(11), 1427–1440.

Short Dark Triad (SD3)

See the Appendix of: Jones, D. N., & Paulhus, D. L. (2014). Introducing the short dark triad (SD3) a brief measure of dark personality traits. Assessment21(1), 28-41

Short Dark Tetrad (SD4)

This 28-item instrument captures subclinical versions of narcissism, machiavellianism, psychopathy, and sadism (also called Special, Crafty, Wild, Mean). Available from Paulhus’s website.

Time Perception

Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory (ZTPI)

Information about the ZTPI (which has 56 items) can be found here. From that page, “The test investigates orientation towards past-negative, past-positive, present-fatalistic, present-hedonistic and future time perspectives independently. It has been used in various field of research and applications, such as academic achievement, risk-taking, drug use, subjective well-being, quality of life, illness, social relations, burnout, health preventive behaviors, post traumatic stress disorders (PTSD), clinical settings, health communications.

Note that a number of shortened ZTPI scales have been developed, and assessed by: Košťál, J., Klicperová-Baker, M., Lukavská, K., & Lukavský, J. (2016). Short version of the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory (ZTPI–short) with and without the Future-Negative scale, verified on nationally representative samples. Time & Society, 25(2), 169–192.

Body Composition

Body Mass Index (BMI)

BMI is a ‘standard’ measure of body composition. While the measure is known to have a number of problems, it is still widely used. It is calculated as:

\text{BMI} = \text{weight} / \text{height}^2

where weight is measured in kilograms, and height is measured in meters.

Waist-to-Height Ratio

The waist-to-height ratio has been found to be a better predictor of cardio metabolic risk, than BMI. It is calculated very simply by dividing the waist circumference by the height. Both have to be in the same units of measurement (e.g. cm).

\text{WHtR} = \text{waist} / \text{height}

Ashwell, M., Gunn, P., & Gibson, S. (2011). Waist-to-height ratio is a better screening tool than waist circumference and BMI for adult cardiometabolic risk factors: systematic review and meta-analysis. Obesity Reviews, 13(3), 275–286.

Body Roundness Index

The Body Roundness Index was proposed by Thomas et al, 2013, and resolves some of the problems of BMI as a measure of body composition. The BRI can be calculated using the equation below. All you need is the waist circumference and the height:

\text{BRI} = 365.2 - 365.3 \times \sqrt{1 - \frac{ 2( \text{waist} /2 \pi )}{(0.5 \times \text{height})^2}}

Thomas, D. M., Bredlau, C., Westphal, A. B., Mueller, M., Shen, W., Gallagher, D., et al. (2013). Relationships between body roundness with body fat and visceral adipose tissue emerging from a new geometrical model. Obesity, 21(11), 2264–2271.